NASA Takes Steps to Reduce Aviation Emissions, Invigorate US Economy

NASA Takes Steps to Reduce Aviation Emissions, Invigorate US Economy

NASA is seeking proposals for ground and flight demonstrations of integrated megawatt-class powertrain systems for subsonic aircraft. The deadline for proposals for this solicitation is 5 p.m. EST April 20.

The demonstrations will help rapidly mature and transition integrated Electrified Aircraft Propulsion (EAP) technologies and associated EAP vision systems for introduction into the global fleet by 2035. Integrated EAP concepts are rapidly emerging as potentially transformative solutions to significantly improve the environmental sustainability of the next generation of subsonic transport vehicles. EAP electrical systems are being developed to replace or boost fuel-burning aircraft propulsion systems, analogous to how electric or hybrid motors are used in automobiles.

"The release of this request for proposals represents an important next step as NASA partners with industry to further mature critical EAP technologies through demonstrating integrated megawatt-class powertrain systems in flight," said Lee Noble, NASA's Integrated Aviation System Program director. "These flight demonstrations have strong applicability to sustainable and highly-efficient aircraft powertrain systems that will facilitate continued U.S. competitiveness for the next generation of commercial transport aircraft."


Though partnerships with U.S. industry, NASA intends to accelerate integrated megawatt-class powertrain system maturation and transition to the global fleet, as well as identify and address gaps in regulations and standards and acquire necessary ground and flight test data to advance design and modelling tools pertinent to future aircraft products with an EAP system.

NASA and industry studies have shown that EAP concepts can reduce energy use, carbon and nitrogen oxide emissions, and direct operating costs resulting in benefits for both the public and the airline operators. NASA and its industry partners have identified turboprops, regional jets, and single aisle aircraft serving the thin-haul (very short flights), regional, and single-aisle markets as targets of opportunity for this technology.

To turn the promise of EAP benefits into reality, NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate has made a critical commitment to demonstrate practical vehicle-level integration of megawatt-class EAP systems, leveraging advanced airframe systems to reinvigorate the regional and emerging smaller aircraft markets, and to strengthen the single-aisle aircraft market. The Electrified Powertrain Flight Demonstration project directly supports retaining U.S. leadership in the aerospace manufacturing sector, the largest net-exporter of all U.S. manufacturing sectors.



SOURCE NASA
Related Links

http://www.nasa.gov




Wednesday, February 24, 2021

Is Architecture a Good Career Option

Is Architecture a Good Career Option

Everything you wanted to know about pursuing a career in Architecture



Choosing a career path is never easy. But understanding the ins and outs and the pros and cons of a career that you are interested in can help you make a better career choice. Architecture is one of those careers that most of us have heard of but seem to have very little knowledge. If you wonder if architecture is a good career option – but more importantly, if it is the right career for you, this article aims to help you make an informed decision. Here's what you can expect from a career as an architect – you can decide if this is the career for you.

What is the day of an architect?

As an architect, your day is filled with business meetings, meeting with clients, developing plans, consulting with engineers, visiting construction sites, coordinating with on-site teams and off-location teams, and ensuring your team carries out your designs and plans precisely.

Architecture is not a job for someone who prefers to work out of an office or from home. This job is best for those who like to work in a team rather than alone, have no problem coordinating with several groups of people, and are willing to travel regularly to construction sites. The job also requires one to be proactive, creative, and have excellent problem-solving skills.

What kind of salary do architects make?

During the initial years, architects don't make much. But that does not mean that you won't get a chance to make money during your career as an architect. The more time you work as an architect, the more opportunity you will have to take home a more-than-average salary. The mean annual wage of architects in the United States has increased steadily year after year. According to the job site, Indeed, architects' average base salary in the United States in 2021 is $110,552 per year. Some cities like Dallas and Austin in Texas, Washington, DC, and Chicago, IL pay their architects more than that.

If you are a partner or a high-level manager with an architecture firm, you can make more than what most people in the United States make every year. If you are exceptional at your job, you could land up in the category of "rich" people. However, remember that it takes years to make this kind of money, and you must be patient until then.

Is there a need for architects in the United States?


When selecting a career, it's natural to pursue one that is in demand. Nobody wants to pursue a career that leads nowhere. While some jobs are dying, it’s not the case with architects. In the United States, there is still a growing need for architects. Architecture is a highly regulated profession and the industry is constantly growing. The Bureau of Labor and Statistics states there will be a 0.8% increase in architects' employment from 2019 to 2029.

Will you still have employment in 2029? Yes, but you must be willing to:

- Stay up-to-date with the most recent happenings within the industry.
- Ensure your architecture license does not expire.
- Protect yourself and your business with architects professional insurance (click here for more information on architects and engineers insurance).
- Continue your architecture education.


Do architects get to use their creativity?


An architect's career depends on their creativity. They must indeed work within math and logic boundaries, but a significant amount of imagination is required to create unique designs. Architects need out-of-the-box thinking skills to work around problems or develop solutions to existing problems.

If you like to showcase your creativity to people, you will be happy to know that you will have plenty of opportunities to be creative and show off your talents.

Do architects need to study a lot?


At the least, you must complete a degree in architecture, several hours of internship, and an intensive architecture examination before you get your architecture license. Some states also require architects to continue their education if they want to ensure their license does not expire.

Although architecture is not an easy course, it is a very practical course. That means you won't be spending all your time with heavy textbooks. It's a hands-on course that requires work on computers and creating drawings, sketches, and images.

Conclusion


There you have it – the ins and outs and the pros and cons of pursuing a career in architecture. As with most other professions, if you are willing to work hard through the initial years, you can make a successful career out of architecture. Do architects lead a monotonous work life? No, it's quite the opposite. Architects are lively and energetic people and full of creativity. They get to move around a lot, meet people, collaborate and share their ideas and create beautiful buildings and structures. If you have a flair for designing, enjoy working with people, traveling, and have no shortage of creative juices flowing through your veins, this could be the career for you.



Photo by The Coach Space from Pexels




Tuesday, February 23, 2021

Sony Announces FX3 Full-Frame Cinema Camera, with YouTube Review from B&H

Sony Announces FX3 Full-Frame Cinema Camera, with YouTube Review from B&H



B&H is excited to announce the Sony FX3 Cinema Camera; an especially compact full-frame camera that mixes Cinema Line capabilities with the portability and versatility of an Alpha camera. Straddling these two lines from Sony, the FX3 features a familiar set of recording capabilities but sports an all-new body design that emphasizes solo, handheld shooting in a minimalist manner.


Key Features

10.2MP Full-Frame CMOS Exmor R Sensor
UHD 4K up to 120 | 1080p up to 240
Compact Form for Cage-Free Operation
10-Bit 4:2:2 XAVC S-I,16-Bit Raw Output
S-Cinetone/S-Log3/HLG, 15+ Stops DR
Detachable 2 x XLR/TRS Adapter Handle
Phase Detection AF/Face Tracking/Eye AF
80 to 409,600 Expanded ISO Range
Dual CFexpress Type A/SDXC Card Slots

Revolving around a full-frame 12.1MP Exmor R BSI CMOS sensor and BIONZ XR processor, the FX3 supports UHD 4K recording up to 120p and Full HD up to 240p, with internal recording possible at 10-bit 4:2:2 sampling. The sensor and processor afford an impressive 15+ stop dynamic range, wide ISO 80-409600 sensitivity range, and feature quick write speeds to help greatly reduce rolling shutter. Recording externally, 16-bit raw output is possible, too, via the full-size HDMI port.

Complementing the recording assets, the FX3 includes an S-Cinetone profile for smooth and distinct color handling that matches other cameras from the Cinema Line, including the VENICE, FX9, and FX6. S-Log3/2 gammas are supported, too, along with 10-bit HLG for direct HDR productions. The sensor's design also features an advanced Fast Hybrid AF system, which benefits run-and-gun filmmakers with intelligent and quick focusing performance and advanced detection and tracking capabilities.

What makes the Sony FX3 so unique within the Cinema Line is its especially compact profile, which measures approximately 5 x 3 x 3", making it similarly sized to a7-series mirrorless camera bodies. The sleek profile still manages to contain an internal fan to promote longer, uninterrupted recording times and it also sports a large right-hand grip for handheld use and a flip-out 3.0" touchscreen LCD for onboard monitoring. The rectangular body design is also positioned as being "cage-free," meaning it includes five ¼"-20 threaded mounts around the body to facilitate direct accessory attachment. A removable top handle is included, as well, which helps with low-angle shooting and features dual XLR ports for improved audio recording. Further contributing to handheld shooting, too, the FX3 has 5-axis mechanical image stabilization and a unique Active mode that's perfect for steadying shots made while walking.


SOURCE B&H Photo
Related Links

www.bhphotovideo.com


Sony Electronics Launches FX3 Full-Frame Camera for Cinematic Look and Enhanced Operability for Creators

Sony Electronics Launches FX3 Full-Frame Camera for Cinematic Look and Enhanced Operability for Creators


Sony Electronics Inc. today announced the FX3 (model ILME-FX3) camera that combines the best of Sony's industry-leading digital cinema technology with advanced imaging features from Alpha™ brand mirrorless cameras to make Sony's coveted cinematic look accessible to more creators.

As the latest addition to Sony's Cinema Line, the FX3 delivers a cinematic look and professional operability and reliability in a camera that is accessible to early-career creators, as well as suitable to be used alongside Sony's VENICE, FX9 and FX6 cameras. The new model provides outstanding image quality and usability for small scale and one-person shooting. The FX3 boasts industry-leading autofocus capabilities, 5-axis in-body image stabilization with Active modev, handheld shooting design and advanced heat dissipation for extended recording times. All this is combined in a compact, lightweight body that provides the performance and mobility to meet the growing demands of today's content creators.


"The FX3 is the perfect tool for content creators looking to enter the world of cinematography," said Neal Manowitz, deputy president for Imaging Products and Solutions Americas at Sony Electronics. "It combines everything our customers love about Sony's video capabilities in our Alpha lineup with a new body optimized for videography. We are excited to add to Sony's Cinema Line and continue to support the world's creators with the best tools possible."


Cinematic Look

The FX3 boasts Sony's industry-leading image sensor technology to achieve high processing speeds and outstanding image quality. The full-frame, back-illuminated Exmor R CMOS sensor (approximately 10.2 effective megapixel count for video recording and approximately 12.1 effective megapixels count for stills) and the BIONZ XR image processing engine team up to ensure high sensitivity with low noise. The standard ISO range is 80 to 102,400 (expandable to 409,600when shooting video), and dynamic range is an impressively wide 15+ stopsiv.

In response to a growing need for more expressive depth, the FX3, along with FX9 and FX6 Cinema Line cameras, allows users to create a cinematic look without post-production using the S-Cinetone color matrix. Inspired by the color science used in Sony's flagship VENICE camera, S-Cinetone delivers natural mid-tones, plus soft colors and smooth highlights that are essential to create a cinematic look.

Creators can record in 4K at up to 120 frames per secondii. Extraordinarily smooth slow-motion imageryvi (up to 5x) at QFHD (3840 x 2160) resolution with autofocus provides new expressive capability.


Designed for Comfortable Solo-Shooting

Sony's most compact and lightweight Cinema Line camera is ideal for handheld shooting, gimbal and drone-mounted work. It weighs just 1.58 lbs. (715 g), including the battery and memory cards, and the body is only 5.11 in x 3.33 in x 3.06 in (77.8 mm x 129.7 mm x 84.5 mm). The camera grip has been carefully designed to provide optimum flexibility, stability and comfort for long shoots.

Designed for mobility and efficiency, the FX3's body features five 1/4-20 UNC threaded mounting points to easily attach compatible accessories while remaining light enough for handheld shooting and making it easy to set up and carry. The supplied XLR handle securely attaches to the body via the Multi Interface Shoe without any special tools and provides three additional threaded mounting points for accessories. Optional accessories such as external monitors, recorders, wireless microphones, or other add-ons can be securely attached.

To enable 4-channel 24-bit audio recording, the supplied XLR handle includes two balanced XLR/TRS audio inputs and an additional 3.5mm stereo 2-channel jack. With an optional XLR or TRS microphone connected, the XLR adaptor on the handle takes care of the A/D (Analogue to Digital) conversion and DSP (Digital Signal Processing), and transfers the digital audio data directly to the camera for outstanding audio quality. Because the XLR adaptor is integrated into the handle and does not require any additional cables or batteries, it offers easy set up. If the handle is not being used, the FX3 includes a 3.5mm stereo mic input on the camera body.

The FX3 provides Fast Hybrid autofocus (AF) by using the 627 pointsvii focal plane phase-detection system during movie recording. The camera is further enhanced with Touch Tracking (Real-Time tracking) where simply touching the desired subject on the monitor screen initiates auto focus and tracking on that subject. Precise and smooth focus is maintained with Real-time Eye AF – technology that pinpoints the eye even when subjects are looking down or up at steep angles. Additionally, other AF features have been included and refined in response to feedback from professional users, including AF Transition Speed, AF Subject Shift Sensitivity, intuitive control and AF support when focusing manually. These AF features have been implemented in the FX3 to ensure stable, flexible and precise focusing in any situation and are easy to operate for solo shoots.

The FX3 features 5-axis optical in-body image stabilization – highly effective for handheld shooting. A high precision stabilization unit and gyro sensors have made it possible to provide an Active Modev that is dedicated to movie shooting in each format, including 4K. In-body image stabilization means that effective stabilization can be achieved with a wide range of E-mount lenses, including those that do not include stabilization on their own. Alternately, the FX3 records image stabilization metadata that can be adjusted during post-production using Catalyst Browse/Prepareviii.


Expandability and Operability for Content Creators

Operability

FX3 was designed to optimize professional operability. The controls frequently used in movie shooting such as ISO, iris, and white balance adjustment are located on the grip and on the top of the body for easy access. In addition, 140 functions assignable to 15 custom keys allow for ultimate efficiency.

The zoom lever located on the top of the grip not only controls compatible powered zoom lenses, but also allows Clear Image Zoom to be used with unpowered zoom and prime lenses – reducing the number of lenses required for many projects. This lever also enables smooth zooming that is difficult for manual zoom-ring control.

Recording lamps (tally) are provided on the top, front and back of the camera, so that the operator and talent can easily confirm recording. A side-opening vari-angle touch-panel LCD monitor allows for easy operation and is suitable for gimbal-mounted shots, complicated angles, handheld operation and more. Flexible Exposure Mode allows the FX3 to have a similar Auto/Manual switch operation as other FX series cameras for iris, shutter speed and ISO, which can be set independently.


Reliability

Creators need more than just refined features and performance; they also need reliability and durability. The FX3 combines a fan for active cooling with effective heat dissipation resulting in uninterrupted 4K 60p recording without thermal shutdowni. The newly developed fan provides high-efficiency cooling by drawing air into the camera via the bottom panel and exhausts via the side.

The new camera also features a dust and moisture resistant designix and durable magnesium alloy chassis. Moreover, USB PD (Power Delivery) supports fast chargingx for uninterrupted recording.


Expandability

The FX3 is compatible with several recording functions including S-Log3 gamma and S-Gamut3.cine, which record in a high dynamic range and wide color gamut. It also supports internal recording in XAVC S™ (MPEG-4 AVC/H.264 Long GOP) and XAVC S-I (MPEG-4 AVC/H.264 Intra) formats in 4K (QFHD) and FHD, and XAVC HS™ (MPEG-H HEVC/H.265, 4K only) format. 4K 60p video in 10-bit 4:2:2 or 16-bit RAW formatxi can be output to an external device via the FX3 full-size HDMI Type-A jack.

The FX3 also offers two fast, future-oriented media slots that contribute to unprecedented shooting freedom by being compatible with either CFexpress Type A or SDXC cards. The same data can be simultaneously recorded to both cards for backup and a "relay" mode will automatically switch to the second media card when the first media card becomes full during recording.

The new camera has been developed with advanced connectivity features to better assist professional creators with high-speed wireless LAN functionality (2.4 GHz or 5 GHz bandxii) and wired LAN connection via a compatible USB-to-Ethernet adaptor. The FX3 supports video and still file transfers to a specified remote FTP server. This FX3 also allows for remote shooting from a PC using the Imaging Edge Desktop™ application's "Remote" function via Wi-Fi, or Superspeed USB 5Gbps connection over USB Type-C® terminal.

About Cinema Line
Cinema Line is a series of cameras that have a filmic look – cultivated from Sony's long experience in digital cinema production – plus enhanced operability and reliability that respond to the wide variety of creators' high demands.

Cinema Line includes the digital cinema camera VENICE, highly acclaimed in the feature and episodic production industry, the professional camera FX9, which is popular for documentary and drama production and the FX6, for grab and shoot action and content creation. With the addition of the new FX3, the most compact camera in the series, Sony offers a true line up of versatile creative tools for all types of visual storytellers.

Pricing and Availability
The new FX3 full-frame Cinema Line camera will be available March 2021 for approximately $3,900 USD and $5,000 CAD. It will be sold at a variety of Sony's authorized dealers throughout North America.

Exclusive stories and exciting new content shot with the new camera and Sony's other imaging products can be found at www.sonycine.com and www.alphauniverse.com, resources designed to educate and inspire all fans of Sony's technology for content creation and photography.

For detailed product information, please visit:
(US) – ILME-FX3
(CA) – ILME-FX3

A product video on FX3 can be viewed HERE.

SOURCE Sony Electronics, Inc.


Tips for Attending Zoom Classes

Tips for Attending Zoom Classes

There is no way you can compare some classes with the live ones. It is different from the other because you're by yourself, and there's no one to correct you directly when you make any mistake. Most students find it hard to focus when attending an online class. Technology is changing, and that means the education sector is also changing. If you're a student, you have to know the best way to attend an online class without failure or making any mistakes. If you follow all the tips, there is no way online lessons will be challenging for you. For example, you can buy dissertation and make a great presentation that everyone will be surprised. Your concentration will be top-notch, and you'll be able to focus without any difficulty.


Zoom Etiquette

If you think there are no rules when going for online classes. You're mistaken. Rules do not change. The ones that apply to your life classes are the same that you will use during the online sessions. If you're not familiar with the rules, here is a list;

- Always be polite at all costs and not utter a word if it is not time for you to speak. For example, when you're on a call, you have to wait for the other party to talk so that you can reply. That is what you have to do when you are attending an online session. You can only speak when it's your turn to either ask or answer a question.

- Do not fail to mute the microphone. It will help because you will not be able to disturb other members with noises. You have to give people the chance to concentrate on what the teacher is sharing. You can only do that by muting your microphone.

- You have to ensure that you follow all the guidelines given to you by the teacher. If you're not supposed to talk in any way, make sure you do that without fail. There's no need to attend a class if you are not ready to follow all the instructions. To be on the safe side, you have to plan yourself early before the session starts.

- Avoid making fun of both your professor and classmates. If you're not ready to learn, do not waste time on other people. If you want to pull a prank on anyone, think twice because that is a wrong decision.


Finding a Perfect Spot

If you want to concentrate well throughout the session, you need to find a great spot with no distractions. There are things that you have to consider when setting your study space;

-Enough lighting. There's no way you can be attentive in a room with less lighting. You will only be lying to yourself. If you are studying during the day, ensure that should do it close to the window, and if you have to attend your classes at night, you need to use good bulbs. You cannot use a blue bulb when attending a session because you'll be in your own world. You have to get a bulb that will make you concentrate.

- Avoid distracting noises. Do not set your pace where they are a lot of distractions. Before you start the session, ensure that you close the door and tell the people present in the house not to distract you.



NASA's Mars Perseverance Rover Provides Front-Row Seat to Landing, First Audio Recording of Red Planet

NASA's Mars Perseverance Rover Provides Front-Row Seat to Landing, First Audio Recording of Red Planet

New video from NASA's Mars 2020 Perseverance rover chronicles major milestones during the final minutes of its entry, descent, and landing (EDL) on the Red Planet on Feb. 18 as the spacecraft plummeted, parachuted, and rocketed toward the surface of Mars. A microphone on the rover also has provided the first audio recording of sounds from Mars.

From the moment of parachute inflation, the camera system covers the entirety of the descent process, showing some of the rover's intense ride to Mars' Jezero Crater. The footage from high-definition cameras aboard the spacecraft starts 7 miles (11 kilometers) above the surface, showing the supersonic deployment of the most massive parachute ever sent to another world, and ends with the rover's touchdown in the crater.

A microphone attached to the rover did not collect usable data during the descent, but the commercial off-the-shelf device survived the highly dynamic descent to the surface and obtained sounds from Jezero Crater on Feb. 20. About 10 seconds into the 60-second recording, a Martian breeze is audible for a few seconds, as are mechanical sounds of the rover operating on the surface.

A microphone attached to the rover did not collect usable data during the descent, but the commercial off-the-shelf device survived the highly dynamic descent to the surface and obtained sounds from Jezero Crater on Feb. 20. About 10 seconds into the 60-second recording, a Martian breeze is audible for a few seconds, as are mechanical sounds of the rover operating on the surface.

 
"For those who wonder how you land on Mars – or why it is so difficult – or how cool it would be to do so – you need look no further," said acting NASA Administrator Steve Jurczyk. "Perseverance is just getting started, and already has provided some of the most iconic visuals in space exploration history. It reinforces the remarkable level of engineering and precision that is required to build and fly a vehicle to the Red Planet."

Also released Monday was the mission's first panorama of the rover's landing location, taken by the two Navigation Cameras located on its mast. The six-wheeled robotic astrobiologist, the fifth rover the agency has landed on Mars, currently is undergoing an extensive checkout of all its systems and instruments.

"This video of Perseverance's descent is the closest you can get to landing on Mars without putting on a pressure suit," said Thomas Zurbuchen, NASA associate administrator for science. "It should become mandatory viewing for young women and men who not only want to explore other worlds and build the spacecraft that will take them there, but also want to be part of the diverse teams achieving all the audacious goals in our future."


The world's most intimate view of a Mars landing begins about 230 seconds after the spacecraft entered the Red Planet's upper atmosphere at 12,500 mph (20,100 kph). The video opens in black, with the camera lens still covered within the parachute compartment. Within less than a second, the spacecraft's parachute deploys and transforms from a compressed 18-by-26 inch (46-by-66 centimeter) cylinder of nylon, Technora, and Kevlar into a fully inflated 70.5-foot-wide (21.5-meter-wide) canopy – the largest ever sent to Mars. The tens of thousands of pounds of force that the parachute generates in such a short period stresses both the parachute and the vehicle.

"Now we finally have a front-row view to what we call 'the seven minutes of terror' while landing on Mars," said Michael Watkins, director of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Southern California, which manages the mission for the agency. "From the explosive opening of the parachute to the landing rockets' plume sending dust and debris flying at touchdown, it's absolutely awe-inspiring."

The video also captures the heat shield dropping away after protecting Perseverance from scorching temperatures during its entry into the Martian atmosphere. The downward view from the rover sways gently like a pendulum as the descent stage, with Perseverance attached, hangs from the back shell and parachute. The Martian landscape quickly pitches as the descent stage – the rover's free-flying "jetpack," which decelerates using rocket engines and then lowers the rover on cables to the surface – breaks free, its eight thrusters engaging to put distance between it and the now-discarded back shell and the parachute.

Then, 80 seconds and 7,000 feet (2,130 meters) later, the cameras capture the descent stage performing the sky crane maneuver over the landing site – the plume of its rocket engines kicking up dust and small rocks that have likely been in place for billions of years.

"We put the EDL camera system onto the spacecraft not only for the opportunity to gain a better understanding of our spacecraft's performance during entry, descent, and landing, but also because we wanted to take the public along for the ride of a lifetime – landing on the surface of Mars," said Dave Gruel, lead engineer for Mars 2020 Perseverance's EDL camera and microphone subsystem at JPL. "We know the public is fascinated with Mars exploration, so we added the EDL Cam microphone to the vehicle because we hoped it could enhance the experience, especially for visually-impaired space fans, and engage and inspire people around the world."


The footage ends with Perseverance's aluminum wheels making contact with the surface at 1.61 mph (2.6 kilometers per second), and then pyrotechnically fired blades sever the cables connecting it to the still-hovering descent stage. The descent stage then climbs and accelerates away in the preplanned flyaway maneuver.

"If this were an old Western movie, I'd say the descent stage was our hero riding slowly into the setting Sun, but the heroes are actually back here on Earth," said Matt Wallace, Mars 2020 Perseverance deputy project manager at JPL. "I've been waiting 25 years for the opportunity to see a spacecraft land on Mars. It was worth the wait. Being able to share this with the world is a great moment for our team."


Five commercial off-the-shelf cameras located on three different spacecraft components collected the imagery. Two cameras on the back shell, which encapsulated the rover on its journey, took pictures of the parachute inflating. A camera on the descent stage provided a downward view – including the top of the rover – while two on the rover chassis offered both upward and downward perspectives.

The rover team continues its initial inspection of Perseverance's systems and its immediate surroundings. Monday, the team will check out five of the rover's seven instruments and take the first weather observations with the Mars Environmental Dynamics Analyzer instrument. In the coming days, a 360-degree panorama of Jezero by the Mastcam-Z should be transmitted down, providing the highest resolution look at the road ahead.


More About the Mission


A key objective of Perseverance's mission on Mars is astrobiology, including the search for signs of ancient microbial life. The rover will characterize the planet's geology and past climate, pave the way for human exploration of the Red Planet, and be the first mission to collect and cache Martian rock and regolith.

Subsequent NASA missions, in cooperation with ESA (European Space Agency), would send spacecraft to Mars to collect these sealed samples from the surface and return them to Earth for in-depth analysis.

The Mars 2020 Perseverance mission is part of NASA's Moon to Mars exploration approach, which includes Artemis missions to the Moon that will help prepare for human exploration of the Red Planet.

JPL, which is managed for NASA by Caltech in Pasadena, California, built and manages operations of the Perseverance rover.


SOURCE NASA
Related Links

http://www.nasa.gov




Monday, February 22, 2021

Alfa Romeo Racing ORLEN Formula One Team Unveils the New C41

Alfa Romeo Racing ORLEN Formula One Team Unveils the New C41



A ceremony in the Grand Theatre in Warsaw, Poland, saw the attendance of a limited number of senior personnel from the Alfa Romeo Racing ORLEN Formula One team – with media, fans and employees being invited to watch virtually in respect of the local COVID-19 regulations. Team drivers Kimi Räikkönen and Antonio Giovinazzi and reserve driver Robert Kubica entered the stage as the C41, in a striking new livery, was shown for the first time.

Featuring a new color scheme designed by Alfa Romeo's Centro Stile and featuring the now traditional red and white colors of the team, the car, designed under the coordination of Technical Director Jan Monchaux, represents an evolution of the C39 that competed in the 2020 season. Owing to the restrictions imposed by the regulations, the car carries over many of the components of its predecessor, while still standing out with its renewed appearance, in particular in regard to the nosecone, an area on which the team chose to focus its development tokens. Under the bodywork lies a new Ferrari engine, ready to rev in less than a week when the team embarks on a new season with the C41's shakedown in Barcelona on Friday.

The Alfa Romeo logo is flanked by the Quadrifoglio (four-leaf clover) traditionally associated with Alfa Romeo's racing efforts, and the logo of Autodelta, the brand's legendary racing team. These logos adorn the bodywork, contributing to the creation of one of the standout cars on the grid – a classic design that embodies the passion and tradition of the marques it represents.

Alfa Romeo once again partners with Sauber Motorsport for the 2021 Formula One World Championship. The partnership between two of the most recognized brands in motorsport started in 2018, when Alfa Romeo joined the team as title sponsor. In the three years of operative collaboration so far, the team has achieved important results. True to its long-lasting spirit of competitiveness, Alfa Romeo takes on the challenge once more.

Alfa Romeo and Sauber Group partnership extends beyond racing. The collaboration, both technical and commercial, allows Sauber Engineering's technical expertise to be transferred to Alfa Romeo road car production. In particular, the Giulia GTA project benefits from this long-standing partnership, leveraging the technical know-how of Sauber AG Engineering and Aerodynamics divisions. Alfa Romeo entrusted Sauber Engineering with the production of most of the carbon components in the GTA and GTAm, especially those with aerodynamic impact.

Frédéric Vasseur, Team Principal Alfa Romeo Racing ORLEN and CEO Sauber Motorsport AG: "The launch of a new car is always an emotional moment, the culmination of months of effort from everyone back at the factory and the start of a new adventure. I think the philosophy upon which the team is based remains the same - we have to do a better job tomorrow than we are doing today. We finished last season in P8, so we have to target a better result in 2021. To do so, we have to keep improving in each department, trackside and back at HQ. Every team on the grid has very high expectations right now: all the teams expect to do a good job in the winter and to be in a good position for the first race, but soon it will be the time for everyone to show their cards."

Jan Monchaux, Technical Director Alfa Romeo Racing ORLEN: "The C41 is the result of a very unusual situation in Formula One, in which the regulations have made us unable to develop an entire new car for this year. For this reason, our 2021 car shares a lot of common parts with the C39, with the exception of those which the regulations forced us to change – such as the floor – and the nosecone, in which we invested our two development tokens. This means we will know the car much better than usual when we get to testing, but it's still going to be crucial to make the most of those three days to verify that reality matches our expectations and to get to know the new tires. We are ready for the new season and we can't wait to see our new car on track."


SOURCE Stellantis
Related Links

http://www.stellantis.com


NASA Science, Cargo Launches on 15th Northrop Grumman Resupply Mission to Space Station

NASA Science, Cargo Launches on 15th Northrop Grumman Resupply Mission to Space Station

A Northrop Grumman Cygnus resupply spacecraft is en route to the International Space Station with approximately 8,000 pounds of science investigations and cargo after launching at 12:36 p.m. EST Saturday from NASA's Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia. About three hours after launch, the spacecraft's solar arrays successfully deployed to collect sunlight to power Cygnus on its journey to the space station.

NASA Television, the NASA app, and agency's website will provide live coverage of the spacecraft's approach and arrival beginning at 3 a.m. Monday, Feb. 22. Cygnus is scheduled to arrive at the space station around 4:40 a.m.

Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Soichi Noguchi will use the space station's robotic Canadarm2 to capture Cygnus upon its arrival, while NASA astronaut Michael Hopkins monitors telemetry during rendezvous, capture, and installation on the Unity module's Earth-facing port.

Northrop Grumman's 15th cargo flight to the space station is the fourth under its Commercial Resupply Services 2 contract with NASA. Cygnus launched on an Antares 230+ rocket from the Virginia Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport's Pad 0A at Wallops.

The resupply flight will support dozens of new and existing investigations. Included in the scientific investigations Cygnus is delivering to the space station are:


Using worms to learn about muscle loss

Tiny worms could help us determine the cause of muscle weakening that astronauts can experience in microgravity. Thanks to a new device for measuring the muscle strength of tiny C. elegans worms, researchers with the Micro-16 study can test whether decreased expression of muscle proteins is associated with this decreased strength. Results of this experiment may provide a better understanding of the links between gene expression and muscle strength, support the development of countermeasures to help maintain crew member health, and support new therapies to combat the effects of age-related muscle loss on Earth.


I dream of space

The ESA (European Space Agency) Dreams experiment will take a closer look at astronaut sleep. The investigation serves as a technology demonstration of the Dry-EEG Headband in microgravity, while also monitoring astronaut sleep quality during a long-duration flight mission. Raw data will be available to scientists for their analysis, while the crew also can input direct feedback on their sleep with a tablet application. Sleep is central to human health, so a better understanding of sleep in space provides a more comprehensive understanding of human health in microgravity.


A life support upgrade

The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) is a system of regenerative life support hardware that provides clean air and water to the space station crew. The system will get an upgrade thanks to the Exploration ECLSS: Brine Processor System. This investigation demonstrates technology to recover additional water from the Urine Processor Assembly using a membrane distillation process. Long-duration crewed exploration missions require about 98% water recovery, and this technology demonstration in brine processing will help achieve this goal. This Brine Processor System plans to close the gap for the urine waste stream of the space station.

Testing the manufacturing of artificial retinas in microgravity
Millions of people on Earth suffer from retinal degenerative diseases. Artificial retinas or retinal implants may provide a way to restore meaningful vision for those affected. In 2018, startup LambdaVision sent its first experiment to the space station to determine if the process used to create artificial retinal implants by forming a thin film one layer at a time may work better in microgravity. LambdaVision's second experiment evaluates a manufacturing system using a light-activated protein that replaces the function of damaged cells in the eye. This information could help LambdaVision uncover whether microgravity could optimize production of these retinas and assist people back on Earth.


Preparing for the Moon

The International Space Station serves as a testing ground for technologies we plan to use on future missions to the Moon. The A-HoSS investigation puts tools for the crewed Artemis II mission to the test. Built as the primary radiation detection system for the Orion spacecraft, the Hybrid Electronic Radiation Assessor (HERA) was modified for operation on the space station. By verifying that HERA can operate without error for 30 days, it validates the system for crewed Artemis mission operations.


Identifying new targets for disease treatment

Each of the more than 100,000 proteins in the human body has a unique and complicated structure, which is closely related to its function. Revealing protein structure can lead to an understanding of its function, but it is difficult to grow protein structures here on Earth where gravity interferes with optimal growth. Previous research has shown that high-quality protein crystals can be produced in microgravity that can be analyzed to identify possible targets for drugs to treat disease. The Real-Time Protein Crystal Growth 2 study plans to produce up to eight high-quality protein crystals at time, which will undergo detailed analysis back on Earth. This investigation allows for real-time adjustments through the run of the experiment.


High-performance computing aboard the space station

Improved high-performance computing will be required for space missions as humans prepare for additional exploration throughout the solar system. Currently, computing capabilities in space are reduced compared to capabilities on the ground because they prioritize reliability over performance, creating challenges when transmitting data to and from space. Launched in 2017, the Spaceborne computer study ran a high-performance commercial off-the-shelf computer system in space, successfully performing more than 1 trillion calculations (or one teraflop) per second for 207 days without requiring reset. Now launching on Northrop Grumman's CRS-15 mission, Spaceborne Computer-2 explores how commercial off-the-shelf computer systems can advance space exploration by reliably processing data significantly faster in space, speeding scientists' time to data access and analysis from months to minutes.

These are just a subset of the hundreds of investigations currently being conducted aboard the orbiting laboratory in the areas of biology and biotechnology, physical sciences, and Earth and space science. Advances in these areas will help keep astronauts healthy during long-duration space travel and demonstrate technologies for future human and robotic exploration missions as part of NASA's Moon and Mars exploration approach, including lunar missions through NASA's Artemis program.

The lead NASA flight director for the mission is Adi Boulos. "I am humbled to be the International Space Station Flight Director for the Northrup Grumman CRS-15 mission," Boulos said. "This spacecraft has the honor of being named the S.S. Katherine Johnson. As a Black woman, Katherine Johnson shattered race and gender barriers to live out her dreams and become a pivotal part of this country's young space program. Fifty-nine years ago today, astronaut John Glenn became the first American to orbit Earth after personally asking for Katherine Johnson to verify his Mercury missions' orbital trajectory calculations. Katherine Johnson was an asset to our space program, and I am honored to work for a mission that expands her legacy even further."

The Cygnus spacecraft will remain at the space station until May before it disposes of several thousand pounds of trash through its destructive re-entry into Earth's atmosphere.

Learn more about Northrop Grumman's mission at:

http://www.nasa.gov/northropgrumman/


SOURCE NASA
Related Links

http://www.nasa.gov




Castrol Supports Roush Fenway Racing To Power First Carbon Neutral NASCAR Race Team

Castrol Supports Roush Fenway Racing To Power First Carbon Neutral NASCAR Race Team



Roush Fenway Racing today announced that the team has become the first carbon neutral NASCAR race team, powered by its official sponsor Castrol. Throughout the 2021 NASCAR season, Castrol will power the Roush Fenway team by supporting Roush Fenway's carbon reduction and offset programs across their operations both on and off the track.

"As an organization, Roush Fenway has always been environmentally conscious," said Roush Fenway President Steve Newmark. "Our hope with this program is to demonstrate that every business, small or large, and regardless of industry, can contribute to address global climate challenges. We hope to set an example and highlight that small steps by many can make a real difference."


Roush Fenway has achieved carbon neutrality for the entire organization including operations, the two race teams and race cars for the period between 1 January 2020 and 31 December 2020, according to the PAS 2060 standard as verified by ERM CVS (independent 3rd party).

The partnership between Roush Fenway and Castrol is designed to help the team better manage its greenhouse gas emissions by tracking, quantifying, and reducing those emissions, and offsetting the balance with high-quality carbon offsets.

"At Castrol, we believe that small steps together can make a difference," said Castrol's Vice President of Marketing Rayne Pacek. "We want to play our part and teaming up with Roush Fenway to achieve their carbon neutral ambitions is a notable milestone in the sport and another step in supporting our partners in their efforts to drive change."


In addition to working with Roush Fenway, Castrol plans to drive change by expanding its carbon neutral product range, reducing the carbon used in its production, and offering a new and expanded range of services – all to give consumers and customers more lower carbon choices.

"It's an honor to pave the way in the sport and bring awareness to the importance of reducing your carbon footprint," said Roush Fenway Driver Ryan Newman. "Every business can make choices to help promote a more sustainable future and this program makes me proud to be part of a team that takes the initiative to drive change."


As part of the program, Newman's traditionally green and red Castrol No 6. Ford Mustang will don an all-white paint scheme featuring a grey Castrol badge and muted logos from partners like Ford Motor Company, Kohler Generators, Oscar Mayer, Coca-Cola, Guaranteed Rate, MacTools, and Wyndham Rewards to show their support of the initiative. This paint scheme will be used at the Daytona Road Course on Sunday, February 21, 2021.

The initiative is part of Castrol's ongoing relationship with Roush Fenway and is another step towards supporting its partners in achieving their lower carbon ambitions. Consumers interested in learning more about Roush Fenway carbon neutral initiative powered by Castrol can visit Castrol.com/DrivingForChange. Visitors can also enter for a chance to win Ryan Newman race-used gear following the Daytona Road Race on February 21, 2021.

bp.com

SOURCE Castrol


Saturday, February 20, 2021

NASA's Perseverance Rover Sends Sneak Peek of Mars Landing

NASA's Perseverance Rover Sends Sneak Peek of Mars Landing



Less than a day after NASA's Mars 2020 Perseverance rover successfully landed on the surface of Mars, engineers and scientists at the agency's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Southern California were hard at work, awaiting the next transmissions from Perseverance. As data gradually came in, relayed by several spacecraft orbiting the Red Planet, the Perseverance team were relieved to see the rover's health reports, which showed everything appeared to be working as expected.

Adding to the excitement was a high-resolution image taken during the rover's landing. While NASA's Mars Curiosity rover sent back a stop-motion movie of its descent, Perseverance's cameras are intended to capture video of its touchdown and this new still image was taken from that footage, which is still being relayed to Earth and processed.

Unlike with past rovers, the majority of Perseverance's cameras capture images in color. After landing, two of the Hazard Cameras (Hazcams) captured views from the front and rear of the rover, showing one of its wheels in the Martian dirt. Perseverance got a close-up from NASA's eye in the sky, as well: NASA's Mars Reconnaissance. Orbiter, which used a special high-resolution camera to capture the spacecraft sailing into Jezero Crater, with its parachute trailing behind. The High Resolution Camera Experiment (HiRISE) camera did the same for Curiosity in 2012. JPL leads the orbiter's mission, while the HiRISE instrument is led by the University of Arizona.

Several pyrotechnic charges are expected to fire later on Friday, releasing Perseverance's mast (the "head" of the rover) from where it is fixed on the rover's deck. The Navigation Cameras (Navcams), which are used for driving, share space on the mast with two science cameras: the zoomable Mastcam-Z and a laser instrument called SuperCam. The mast is scheduled to be raised Saturday, Feb. 20, after which the Navcams are expected to take panoramas of the rover's deck and its surroundings.

In the days to come, engineers will pore over the rover's system data, updating its software and beginning to test its various instruments. In the following weeks, Perseverance will test its robotic arm and take its first, short drive. It will be at least one or two months until Perseverance will find a flat location to drop off Ingenuity, the mini-helicopter attached to the rover's belly, and even longer before it finally hits the road, beginning its science mission and searching for its first sample of Martian rock and sediment.

More About the Mission

A primary objective for Perseverance's mission on Mars is astrobiology research, including the search for signs of ancient microbial life. The rover will characterize the planet's geology and past climate and be the first mission to collect and cache Martian rock and regolith, paving the way for human exploration of the Red Planet.

Subsequent NASA missions, in cooperation with ESA (European Space Agency), will send spacecraft to Mars to collect these cached samples from the surface and return them to Earth for in-depth analysis.

The Mars 2020 Perseverance mission is part of NASA's Moon to Mars exploration approach, which includes Artemis missions to the Moon that will help prepare for human exploration of the Red Planet.

JPL, a division of Caltech in Pasadena, California, manages the Mars 2020 Perseverance mission and the Ingenuity Mars Helicopter technology demonstration for NASA.

For more images from Perseverance, go to:

https://www.nasa.gov/content/perseverance-mars-rovers-first-images

For more about Perseverance:

https://mars.nasa.gov/mars2020/

and

https://nasa.gov/perseverance

SOURCE NASA
Related Links

http://www.nasa.gov

Friday, February 19, 2021

NASA TV Coverage Scheduled for Upcoming Spacewalks, Briefing

NASA TV Coverage Scheduled for Upcoming Spacewalks, Briefing

Three crew members from Expedition 64 will conduct two spacewalks working in pairs Sunday, Feb. 28, and Friday, March 5, to continue upgrades on the International Space Station. NASA will discuss the upcoming spacewalks during a news conference at 2 p.m. EST Wednesday, Feb. 24.

Live coverage of the briefing and spacewalks will air on NASA Television, the NASA app, and the agency's website.

With safety restrictions related to the ongoing coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, NASA centers will be unable to host reporters on-site. Reporters who wish to participate by telephone must call the newsroom at NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston at 281-483-5111 to RSVP no later than 4 p.m. Tuesday, Feb. 23. Those following the briefing on social media may ask questions using #AskNASA.

News conference participants include:
Kenny Todd, deputy manager, International Space Station Program
Marcos Flores, March 5 spacewalk flight director
Chris Edelen, Feb. 28 spacewalk flight director
Art Thomason, spacewalk officer

Live coverage of the Sunday, Feb. 28, spacewalk will begin at 4:30 a.m., with the crew members scheduled to exit the station's Quest airlock about 6:00 a.m. Coverage of the spacewalk on Friday, March 5, will begin at 5:30 a.m., with the astronauts exiting the hatch about 7:00 a.m. Each spacewalk will last approximately six and a half hours.

NASA flight engineers Kate Rubins and Victor Glover, as well as Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Soichi Noguchi, will conduct the upcoming spacewalks, which will be the 235th and 236th in the history of station assembly, maintenance, and upgrades.

On Sunday, Feb. 28, Rubins and Glover will step out of the space station to begin assembling and installing modification kits required for upcoming solar array upgrades. The current solar arrays are functioning well, but have begun to show signs of degradation, as expected, as they were designed for a 15-year service life. The first pair of solar arrays were deployed in December 2000 and have been powering the station for more than 20 years. Later this year, the new solar arrays will be positioned in front of six of the current arrays, increasing the station's total available power from 160 kilowatts to up to 215 kilowatts. Rubins will be extravehicular crew member 1 (EV 1) wearing red stripes. Glover will be extravehicular crew member 2 (EV 2) and wear a suit with no stripes.

On Friday, March 5, Rubins and Noguchi will venture outside the orbiting outpost to vent ammonia from the Early Ammonia System and complete several other tasks. The pair will install a "stiffener" on the Quest airlock thermal cover to prevent it from blowing out when residual atmosphere escapes as the hatch is opened. Glover began addressing this issue on a previous spacewalk by installing a stronger magnet to keep the cover closed. The crew also will remove and replace a wireless video transceiver assembly. Rubins will be EV 1 and Noguchi will be EV 2.

These spacewalks will be the third and fourth in Rubins' career. Glover has conducted two spacewalks as part of this expedition, making the spacewalk on Feb. 28 the third in his career. The March 5 spacewalk will be the fourth in Noguchi's career.

In November 2020, the International Space Station surpassed its 20-year milestone of continuous human presence, providing opportunities for unique research and technological demonstrations that help prepare for long-duration missions to the Moon and Mars and also improve life on Earth. In that time, 242 people from 19 countries have visited the orbiting laboratory that has hosted nearly 3,000 research investigations from researchers in 108 countries and areas.


SOURCE NASA
Related Links

http://www.nasa.gov




Touchdown! NASA's Mars Perseverance Rover Safely Lands on Red Planet

Touchdown! NASA's Mars Perseverance Rover Safely Lands on Red Planet



The largest, most advanced rover NASA has sent to another world touched down on Mars Thursday, after a 203-day journey traversing 293 million miles (472 million kilometers). Confirmation of the successful touchdown was announced in mission control at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Southern California at 3:55 p.m. EST (12:55 p.m. PST).

Packed with groundbreaking technology, the Mars 2020 mission launched July 30, 2020, from Cape Canaveral Space Force Station in Florida. The Perseverance rover mission marks an ambitious first step in the effort to collect Mars samples and return them to Earth.

"This landing is one of those pivotal moments for NASA, the United States, and space exploration globally – when we know we are on the cusp of discovery and sharpening our pencils, so to speak, to rewrite the textbooks," said acting NASA Administrator Steve Jurczyk. "The Mars 2020 Perseverance mission embodies our nation's spirit of persevering even in the most challenging of situations, inspiring, and advancing science and exploration. The mission itself personifies the human ideal of persevering toward the future and will help us prepare for human exploration of the Red Planet in the 2030s."


About the size of a car, the 2,263-pound (1,026-kilogram) robotic geologist and astrobiologist will undergo several weeks of testing before it begins its two-year science investigation of Mars' Jezero Crater. While the rover will investigate the rock and sediment of Jezero's ancient lakebed and river delta to characterize the region's geology and past climate, a fundamental part of its mission is astrobiology, including the search for signs of ancient microbial life. To that end, the Mars Sample Return campaign, being planned by NASA and ESA (European Space Agency), will allow scientists on Earth to study samples collected by Perseverance to search for definitive signs of past life using instruments too large and complex to send to the Red Planet.

"Because of today's exciting events, the first pristine samples from carefully documented locations on another planet are another step closer to being returned to Earth," said Thomas Zurbuchen, associate administrator for science at NASA. "Perseverance is the first step in bringing back rock and regolith from Mars. We don't know what these pristine samples from Mars will tell us. But what they could tell us is monumental – including that life might have once existed beyond Earth."


Some 28 miles (45 kilometers) wide, Jezero Crater sits on the western edge of Isidis Planitia, a giant impact basin just north of the Martian equator. Scientists have determined that 3.5 billion years ago the crater had its own river delta and was filled with water.

The power system that provides electricity and heat for Perseverance through its exploration of Jezero Crater is a Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator, or MMRTG. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) provided it to NASA through an ongoing partnership to develop power systems for civil space applications.

Equipped with seven primary science instruments, the most cameras ever sent to Mars, and its exquisitely complex sample caching system – the first of its kind sent into space – Perseverance will scour the Jezero region for fossilized remains of ancient microscopic Martian life, taking samples along the way.

"Perseverance is the most sophisticated robotic geologist ever made, but verifying that microscopic life once existed carries an enormous burden of proof," said Lori Glaze, director of NASA's Planetary Science Division. "While we'll learn a lot with the great instruments we have aboard the rover, it may very well require the far more capable laboratories and instruments back here on Earth to tell us whether our samples carry evidence that Mars once harbored life."


Paving the Way for Human Missions

"Landing on Mars is always an incredibly difficult task and we are proud to continue building on our past success," said JPL Director Michael Watkins. "But, while Perseverance advances that success, this rover is also blazing its own path and daring new challenges in the surface mission. We built the rover not just to land but to find and collect the best scientific samples for return to Earth, and its incredibly complex sampling system and autonomy not only enable that mission, they set the stage for future robotic and crewed missions."


The Mars Entry, Descent, and Landing Instrumentation 2 (MEDLI2) sensor suite collected data about Mars' atmosphere during entry, and the Terrain-Relative Navigation system autonomously guided the spacecraft during final descent. The data from both are expected to help future human missions land on other worlds more safely and with larger payloads.

On the surface of Mars, Perseverance's science instruments will have an opportunity to scientifically shine. Mastcam-Z is a pair of zoomable science cameras on Perseverance's remote sensing mast, or head, that creates high-resolution, color 3D panoramas of the Martian landscape. Also located on the mast, the SuperCam uses a pulsed laser to study the chemistry of rocks and sediment and has its own microphone to help scientists better understand the property of the rocks, including their hardness.

Located on a turret at the end of the rover's robotic arm, the Planetary Instrument for X-ray Lithochemistry (PIXL) and the Scanning Habitable Environments with Raman & Luminescence for Organics & Chemicals (SHERLOC) instruments will work together to collect data on Mars' geology close-up. PIXL will use an X-ray beam and suite of sensors to delve into a rock's elemental chemistry. SHERLOC's ultraviolet laser and spectrometer, along with its Wide Angle Topographic Sensor for Operations and eNgineering (WATSON) imager, will study rock surfaces, mapping out the presence of certain minerals and organic molecules, which are the carbon-based building blocks of life on Earth.

The rover chassis is home to three science instruments, as well. The Radar Imager for Mars' Subsurface Experiment (RIMFAX) is the first ground-penetrating radar on the surface of Mars and will be used to determine how different layers of the Martian surface formed over time. The data could help pave the way for future sensors that hunt for subsurface water ice deposits.

Also with an eye on future Red Planet explorations, the Mars Oxygen In-Situ Resource Utilization Experiment (MOXIE) technology demonstration will attempt to manufacture oxygen out of thin air – the Red Planet's tenuous and mostly carbon dioxide atmosphere. The rover's Mars Environmental Dynamics Analyzer (MEDA) instrument, which has sensors on the mast and chassis, will provide key information about present-day Mars weather, climate, and dust.

Currently attached to the belly of Perseverance, the diminutive Ingenuity Mars Helicopter is a technology demonstration that will attempt the first powered, controlled flight on another planet.

Project engineers and scientists will now put Perseverance through its paces, testing every instrument, subsystem, and subroutine over the next month or two. Only then will they deploy the helicopter to the surface for the flight test phase. If successful, Ingenuity could add an aerial dimension to exploration of the Red Planet in which such helicopters serve as a scouts or make deliveries for future astronauts away from their base.

Once Ingenuity's test flights are complete, the rover's search for evidence of ancient microbial life will begin in earnest.

"Perseverance is more than a rover, and more than this amazing collection of men and women that built it and got us here," said John McNamee, project manager of the Mars 2020 Perseverance rover mission at JPL. "It is even more than the 10.9 million people who signed up to be part of our mission. This mission is about what humans can achieve when they persevere. We made it this far. Now, watch us go."



More About the Mission


A primary objective for Perseverance's mission on Mars is astrobiology research, including the search for signs of ancient microbial life. The rover will characterize the planet's geology and past climate and be the first mission to collect and cache Martian rock and regolith, paving the way for human exploration of the Red Planet.

Subsequent NASA missions, in cooperation with ESA, will send spacecraft to Mars to collect these cached samples from the surface and return them to Earth for in-depth analysis.

The Mars 2020 Perseverance mission is part of NASA's Moon to Mars exploration approach, which includes Artemis missions to the Moon that will help prepare for human exploration of the Red Planet.

JPL, a division of Caltech in Pasadena, California, manages the Mars 2020 Perseverance mission and the Ingenuity Mars Helicopter technology demonstration for NASA.

For more about Perseverance:

https://mars.nasa.gov/mars2020/

and

https://nasa.gov/perseverance

SOURCE NASA
Related Links

http://www.nasa.gov


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